Sunday, December 2, 2012

Dravidian, Mande and Elamite by Dr. Clyde Winters

A genealogical relationship exist between the Black African, Dravidian, Elamite and Sumerian languages. This is not surprising because African languages were used by Rawlinson, to decipher the cuneiform script.
We must consider the historical link between languages assumed to possess a genealogical relationship, although they are separated by thousands of miles. The anthropological factors involved in determining a genealogical relationship is the scientific study of the cognate origin, and the physical, social and cultural development and behavior of related groups. This has already been done in the earlier chapters in regards to the
Black African, Puntite and Dravidian languages. We have already shown that there is a connection between the basic vocabularies and identical constituent structures and grammatical categories.
The Elamites, Dravidians, Sumerians and Manding are all of
Proto-Saharan origin . In the history of mankind they were called the Kushites . Testimony of the great heritage of the Kushites, resulted from their boldness in trade and seafaring expeditions. The authors of ancient Indian literature claimed that the Kushites ruled the world for 7000 years. According to Epiphanies, the age of the Kushites extended from the Flood to the age of Terah, the father of Abraham, the prophet of the Jews and Muslims.
In the ancient inscriptions of Africa and Asia the Kushites were called many names including Kush, and Ethiopian by the Greeks and Romans. In Sumerian inscriptions the Kushites were called Meluha=Kasi < Kush . There is historical evidence that suggest that the name Meluha, was a geographical name for the Africans who lived in the area of Nubia and Northwest Africa.
The people of Nubia are mostly associated with the name Kushite were the C-Group culture group, worshipers of Amon and Neith . The Egyptian term for these people was K-'-sh and K-'-sh-i. The Hebrews called them Kush. In the cuneiform inscriptions the Sudanese were called Kushiya.
Elamite Inscription
The Kushites belonged to the Maa confederation. As a result of this Kushite origin in Asia we find many place names with the term Kush, e.g.,the Kushana of Central Asia, Kashmere and Hindu Kush .
According to the Matsya, an ancient book from India, the world belonged to the Kushites or Saka (as they are sometimes called) for 7000 years. In the Mahabharata, the Sakadvipa is the 'land of the [Kushites] Sakas. The seven mountains of Sakadvipa were named Meru, Malaya, Jaladhara, Raivata, Syama, Durgasaila and Kesara.
The Meru of Indian literature may be none other than the Meroe of the Sudan, or a primeval Meroe that was long ago lost to cataclysm. The four kingdoms of theSaka were Maga (Manga), MasakaMansa and Mandaga. The Maga, reminds us of the Magians or the Maka of the Persian inscriptions. The Masakas, in the Mahabharata, are called Kastriyas. The Mandagas or Manda were also probably Mada or the Medes. These Medians may have had a connection with the ancient Mande speakers of Africa, especially
the Manding who often accompanied the Dravidians out of Middle Africa into Asia. This would explain the close relationship between Elamite and the Manding languages.
Place names offer testimony to the ancient inhabitants of an area. Because whereas languages and the people who spoke them may disappear from a region place names of important areas will remain constant.
There are similar place names found in the Sudan and Asia. Prof. Bator Vamos Toth, an expert on the ancient Tamana culture has found 21 suffixes, and hundreds of place names that link the Sudan and Asia . For example , Dr. Vamos Toth has noted that there is a Kar-nak in Egypt and Kar-nak in Central Asia. Other common place names affixes include -bura,-dan, -kara, -tal and -ur.
An Elamite
Dr. Vamos Toth has illustrated how the inhabitants of the Carpathian Valley and other cultures around the world share a similar culture.In all the countries sharing place names Dr. Bator found a common toponym: Tamana. He therefore calls this ancestral culture/civilization Tamana. It is interesting to note that the Proto-Saharans formerly lived in these areas.
The word Tamana means 'great place'. These ancient Tamana sites were probably forts established in areas occupied by hostile non Proto-Saharan speaking peoples.
The Kushites when they migrated from Middle Africa to Asia called themselves Kushites. This is most evident in place names and the names of gods. The Kassites, chief rulers of Iran occupied the central part of the Zagros. The Kassite god was called Kashshu, which was also the name of the people. The K-S-H, name element is also found in India. For example Kishkinthai, was the name applied to an ancient Dravidian kingdom in South India. Also it should be remembered that the Kings of Sumer, were
often referred to as the " Kings of Kush".
The major Kushite tribe in Central Asia was called Kushana. The Kushan of China were Ta Yueh-ti or "the Great Lunar Race". Along the Salt Swamp, there was a state called Ku-Shih of Tibet. The city of K-san, was situated in the direction of Kushan, which was located in the Western part of the Gansu Province of China.
In this chapter we will explain how the Elamite, Dravidian, Manding and Sumerian languages diverged from a common Paleo-African language.The ancient Proto-Saharans from their literature and culture appear to have descended from a common ancestor. This sociolinguistic reality of a number of related groups 5000 years ago is proven by a comparison of terms from
Dravidian (D.), Elamite (E.) , Manding (M.), and Sumerians (S.), which show shared features retained during a process of divergence from a common ancestor.
There is no area of linguistic structure which can totally resist change, but that area of language least accessible to foreign influence is the basic vocabulary. The basic vocabulary of a language is that sector of the lexicon, which comprise the basic elements of one's culture the division of the body and biological activities such as eating, sleeping and etc.
But the lexical comparisons are not enough to prove a genealogical relationship, because grammar and morphology holds precedence over phonology and syntax. As a result below I will elucidate the interrelationships between Dravidian (Dr.), Elamite, Manding (M.) and Sumerian and the common retention rate within the members of these Proto-Saharan languages.
The Proto-Saharan languages are agglutinative. In these languages subject (S), verb (V), object (O) is the order of the basic constituents.
There are numerous examples of phonetic, morphological, and lexical parallels between Elamite, Dravidian, Manding and Sumerian. For example,there is a system of five basic vowels and three-fold distinction of lip rounded and rounded.

i u ii uu
e o ee oo
a aa
The Proto-Saharan consonants are:
p t l n
b d k z
f s g kp
w r h gb
m n y
In the Proto-Saharan languages the initial /s/ and /k/ ;and /d/ and /t/ are interchangeable e.g., *ka and *sa 'great', and *ta and *da 'place'. Among the Manding and other African languages there are doubly articulated stops /kp/ and /gb/ . In addition, in all these languages /l/ and /r/ does not occurs initially.
The Proto-Saharan consonants are the following:
g remains unchanged or is replaced by k
k " " " " " " g
l and r are interchangeable
d and t are interchangeable
b remains unchanged or is replaced by p or f
p " " " " " " b
m remains unchanged
n normal remains unchanged
n palatal is replaced by l
d remains unchanged of replaced by t
t " " " " " d
The Proto-Saharan consonantal system is the following:

k- -k- -k
g- -g-
d- -d- -d
t- -t- -tt- -t
p- -p- -p
b- -b-
s- -s-
z- -z-
r- -r- -rr- -r
l- -l- -l
n- -n- -n
m- -m- -m
y- -y- -y
w- -w-
There is a similarity in pronouns:
Language Singular Plural
1st.Per.2nd Per. 3rd Per. 1st Per. 2nd Per. 3rd Per.
Dravidian an,naa l a an an,ani aru
Manding na, n' i a, e alu
Elamite u nu ri un nun r: ir
Sumerian ga, gal za, au ene men zu,ne ene-ne
Language Proximate Distant Finite
Dravidian i a u
Manding i a u
Sumerian bi a
The Proto-Saharan languages share locative constructions. These directional elements can be simple or compound. Common suffixial directional elements include:
Elamite Sumerian English Manding
-ak and ka
kuttu so,also,as ka
-hi this ni
ukku ku on ku, kuna
-ma -na in,at na
itaka da with la, ti
-na of -no
-lina -ta for -ti

Common directional elements include:
ma -a in na
imma, ni out,of ma, no
ikku (ikki) -ra to koro
lina ta for ti
mar from a place ma 'area,land'
itaka da with la, ti
All the Proto-Saharan languages share certain grammatical features. Those grammatical elements shared by Dravidian, Elamite, Sumerian and Black African languages include 1) vowel harmony, 2) absence of initial clusters of consonants, 3) abundance of geminated consonants,4) distinction of inclusive and exclusive pronouns in first person plural, 5) absence of
degrees of comparison for adjectives and adverbs as distinct morphological categories, 6) consonant alteration on nominal increments noticed by different classes,7) distinction of completed action among verbal paradigms as against specific tense distinction and 9) use of reduplication for emphasis (and plural).
In the Dravidian, Egyptian, Elamite, Manding and Dravidian languages words are formed by adding an affix to a radical. In this section we will discuss certain aspects of shared Proto-Saharan morphology.
In these languages suffixes are usually used to create words. These suffixes can be a single consonant (C) or vowel (V), or a monosyllabic form (CV). The most common suffix in Dravidian, Egyptian, Elamite, Manding and Sumerian are the postfixes -ki, -ka and -ta , which are used to denote clans, nationality, lands and countries .
In the Proto-Saharan languages the plural is formed by adding -u,-w,-ba, -pa and -lu.In Egyptian, the -w suffix is used to form the plural. In the Dravidian (Dr.) . languages the plural if formed by -lu, especially in Telugu. In the Manding (M) group, and other African languages we find -lu or -u (-w), e.g., M. mogo 'husband,(pl.) mogo-lu 'husbands'; Telugu magaadu 'husband , man', (pl.) magaalu 'husbands'.
In many Black African languages ba means 'abundance, many'. In Elamite pa or fa is used to make plural numbers, e.g., ko-fa inna 'of the Kings', Bapitu fa-pa "to the Babylonians". The use of -pa, by the Elamites corresponds to the Manding use of the -ba suffix , which is joined to nouns to denote the idea of greatness, physical or moral e.g., na-folo 'good,rich'
, no-folo-ba 'great fortune'; and so-kalo 'piece', so-kala-ba 'considerable quarter of a village'.
In Black African languages including Egyptian the -n, is used to show negation. In Egyptian we often find -nn, e.g., nn wn 'there is nothing'. In Elamite the negative is formed by an uninflected nominal derivative in -n (active participle), e.g., ink 'I not", inr 'he not' and ani 'not'. This suffix is analogous to the M. negative suffix -na, employed as a suffix to -ka, e.g., ka na ku na tara so "I did not say I was going to the house" .
In Tamil the negative verbal participle is formed by suffixing a-mal or a-mei, e.g., sey (y)-a-mal 'without stopping'. The Tamil suffix -mei is also used as a termination for abstract nouns.
The negative suffix in Manding is -na, which is proceeded by ka and nt'i, e.g., kalu mba-nt'i. In Sumerian the negation of the verb is expressed by the prefixes nu- or la-, e.g., nu-zu "not to know", la-gin "not to fix" and nu-dug "not good. The optative mood are negatived by the element na,na-ma-pad "she may not".
In Elamite personal nouns are formed by adding -ra, e.g., Kellira 'commander', kutira 'bearer'. This relates to the Manding suffix of the past and present participle -ra, this particle is used to make verbs passive or active, e.g., kyi 'send', kyi-ra 'messenger', gyi (ji) 'dry up', gyi-ra 'arid'.
In Sumerian the dative is expressed by the suffix -ra, which may appear in the form of -ar, -ir , and -ur, e.g., ma-ra 'to me', lugal-e-a-ra ' to the owner of the house'. This parallels the Manding locative suffix -ra, and -la , which can represent 'to,or, for, in ', e.g., tu-ra 'in the forest'.
The Elamite indefinite article is -ra, e.g., Parsar-ra 'a Persian', Afartu-ra 'an Elamite'. This corresponds to the Manding locative suffix -ra, e.g., Ton-ra 'land of Ton'.
The Proto-Saharan languages share the present participle -tu/-to. In Telugu (Tel.),the suffix -tu , is used as the present participle while in the Manding languages -to has the same function e.g., Tel. chestu 'made', M.tege 'to cut', tege-to 'cutting'.
The active participle in Elamite is -n, e.g., talu-n 'writing', or hali-n 'toiling'. This corresponds to the Manding -ni and -li elements e.g., sa 'buy', sanni 'buying', or du-mu 'eat', dumu-ni 'eating'. This -n, active participle is found in many other Black African languages including Egyptian.
The use of the -ka element is frequently found in the formation of Dravidian, Elamite, Egyptian, Manding and Sumerian languages. In Egyptian as outlined by Cheikh Anta Diop, in Nouvelles Recherches Sur l' Egyptien Ancien et Langues Negro-Africaines Modernes (pp.55-57), he outlines the use of /k/ and /t/ , to form agent nouns. In Parente genetique de l'Egyptien Pharonique et des langues Negro-Africaines (p.18), Diop explains the evolution of the -ky, and -kt particles.
In Elamite the passive participle is formed by -ka, e.g., hulta-ka 'done', turu-ka 'said'. This corresponds to the Manding -ka 'make, do',e.g., nyine 'see', nyini-ka 'interogate'.
In the Dravidian and Manding languages -ka, is used to represent the verb 'to be', as well as the subjunctive. For example in Manding languages ka, is a particle of different values, which corresponds to -kaa, the infinitive element in Telugu of the verb ag-uta 'to become'. In Tamil this
element appears as aaga. For example, in Manding we have a ka-nye 'it's good'; and in Telugu kaa valenu 'it is necessary'. The same radical -ka represents the optative form in Telugu, e.g., aapani mundara kani 'how is labor given first place?'
In the Dravidian languages the suffixes -ke, -ge and -ka are used as the primitive verb 'to be' or 'to do'. They are usually used with abstract nouns e.g., ol 'to reign', ol-ka 'domination'. This corresponds to the Manding verb 'to do' ke , which is often joined to -la to form derived nouns e.g., sene 'cultivate', sene-li ke-la 'cultivator'.
These languages also share many cognate terms.
chief kal,kala kele-tigi gasa(n)
field gan ga kalan
eye(l) igi akki
eye(2) ini,en nya kan
arrow kak kala kakam
granary kur k'ur-k'ur kutir
road sila sila caalai
father pap pa appan
lord manus mansa mannan
male mu moko maakkal
to recite sid siti
to buy sa sa cel
grain se se
seed gen ge 'to sprout'

English Dravidian Manding
top, summit kona kun
one ondu do
two pattu ta
four naal nani
person uki moko
fish(filet) bale bake
skin uri wuru,guru
house lon lu
head kuku ku
tongue na ne
blacksmith inumu numu
foot karal koro
liver karal kura
mud burada boro, buru
give idu di
stone kaly kulu
cloud kaar ka, kaba
fire ti ta
mountain kunru kuru
elder,grandfather maama maa-maa
-ak and ka
turna know, awaken kuna, fori
sahri death sa
murta to erect kura
-mar from a place ma
li give di
tela to go tara
Nap God Nala
tus habitation du
husu ill-omened dyugu
kuta lance keru
lan,lani silver dala
ki one killi
ta place ta
kik sky,heaven ka
sari sculpter se
ufat steel tuufa
tela to go ta
khali great ka
dau help deema
ko king,lord ka
na say na
para to watch fere-ke
The lexical evidence above supports the hypothesis that a genetic relationship exist between Black African languages, Dravidian, Elamite and Sumerian. This linguistic data illustrates that a common cultural macrostructure is shared by these speakers which subsequently evolved along separate lines. Given this genetic unity of these languages we should call this group of Paleo-African languages situated in Africa and Asia B(lack) Af(rican), S(umerian, Draa(vidian), (E)lam: or Bafsudraalam subset of the Proto-Saharan Superset of languages.(Winters 1989)
The theory of borrowing in ancient time can not account for these morphological, lexicological and phonetic correspondences between Dravidian , Elamite, Egyptian, Manding and Sumerian, because of geographical discontinuity. This cognition illustrates a genetic relationship between the Bafsudraalam subset of the Proto-Saharan family of languages.
Winters (l989) in a comparison of 100 lexical items from Manding and Dravidian indicated a cognate rate of 70 to 75 percent . The retention rate corresponds to a minimum separation of 1.18 millennia.
Using the standard rates of retention for glottochronology, the rate for corresponding Manding, Sumerian and Tamil terms together is 50 percent retention rate, and suggest a minimum length of separation of 2.29 millennia for the group as a whole.(Winters 1989) But when we compare Manding-Sumerian
the retention rate is 70 percent or a minimum length of separation of 1.18 millennia. A comparison of Sumerian-Tamil corresponds to a 57 percent retention rate or a minimum separation of 1.50 millennia.
The length of separations for these languages are far too recent. We know for example that Sumerian had been absorbed by the Akkadian language much earlier then 2.29 millennia ago. This inaccuracy of glottochronology is one reason why Anta Diop is opposed to this linguistic method.
The conservative nature of these languages can be explained by socio-cultural factors. You see all languages do not change as rapidly as others. Dr. Diop, in The African Origins of Civilization, observes that "understandably stable societies man's language has changed less with the passage of time".
The linguistic evidence explains the appearance of similar artifacts recovered from Iran (Elam) , the Indus Valley and Egyptian archaeological excavations. The cultural features and works of art are analogous because these people came from a common origin in the ancient Saharan region of Africa.

Itiopology:An Ethnographic Survey of The Ethiopic Black World

Itiopology is an Ethiopic-centered, qualitative research method designed at exploring cultural phenomena related to the Black World. The resulting field study or research reflects the Knowledge and the system of meanings in the lives of the Ethiopic and related cultural groups.

Itiopography is a means to represent graphically, and in writing, the Culture of the Ethiopic people.

Itiopology observes the Black World from the point of view of the subject and records all observed behavior and describes all symbolic meaning relations using concepts and methods that avoid casual explanations.

Tuesday, May 22, 2012

The Proto-Saharan Civilization by Dr. Clyde Winters

In ancient times a wonderful civilization existed in the Highland regions of Middle Africa. In this wonderful civilization 6000 years ago lived the ancestors of the Dravidians, Black Africans, Elamites and the Sumerians. Today we call this Proto-Saharan civilization the "Fertile African Crescent", because the highland regions in which the Proto-Saharans l lived formed a crescent shape across the Saharan region of middle Africa.

Pastoralism and fishing preceded food production in the ancient Sahara. It appears that a hunter-fisher-gatherer group which clearly specialized in the hunting of animals (as evidenced by the arrowheads) became animal herders, since they were keenly aware of the habits of game and therefore made the shift from hunter-fisher-gatherer to animal husbandry rapidly once climatic conditions in the Sahara made it impossible to collect grains.

Moderate climatic conditions made it possible for the Proto-Saharans to engage in intensive plant domestication. Food surpluses led to the rise of towns and cities, complex political organization. social ranking of individuals in society, and craft specialization as certain clans and ethnic groups became more sedentary.

The linguistic evidence indicates that the Proto-Saharans practiced a form of intensive agriculture characterized by the use of the hoe, related water storage and irrigation techniques plus the application of fertilizers to the cultivated land.

The ability to produce surplus food led to an increase in population, changes in social organization and class distinctions. Naturally, population increases forced the ancestors of the Proto-Saharans to spill over into more marginal areas. This population pressure probably forced many Proto-Saharan clans to domesticate plants and animals to preserve traditional levels of food production.

The ancestors of the Dravidians, Manding and Sumerians were organized into a federal system during the neolithic subpluvial. These early Proto- Saharans made adequate uses of local game and plant life and they established permanent and seasonal settlements around well stocked fishing holes. They lived on plains, punctuated by mountains and numerous points of inundation due to the frequency of rain in the ancient Sahara.

The early ability to find permanent sources of food and shelter during the neolithic by the Proto-Dravidians, and other Proto-Saharans led to increased domestic functioning of the woman, since hunting wild game and the constant need of the Proto-Saharans to provide food and the search for herds of game, as a source of food was no longer that important. The stability of the hearth maintained by the women led to the development of a matriarchal system. In addition to a matrillineal pattern of inheritance among these people, women had equal rights to the men.

Women created agriculture. Thus, the term"Ma",appears in the languages spoken by the descendants of the Proto-Saharans to denote both "mother" and "earth area".

The Proto-Saharans claimed descent from the Maa or Fish Confederation. The Maa Confederation includes the Egyptians, Elamites, Dravidians, Manding and Sumerians. In honor of the great ancestor: Maa, they worshipped a god called: Amun, Amon, or Amma. In honor of this great ancestor the descendants of the Proto-Saharans use the term Ma, to denote greatness or highness, e.g., Manding " Maga" and Dravidian Ma. Other Proto-Saharan tribes claimed direct descent from the great Maa, founder of the Fish Confederation. For example, the Manding call themselves Ma-nde: children of Ma, while the Sumerians were called Ma-Gar-ri (exalted God's children).

The Proto-Saharans share place names. Evidence for shared place names has been discovered by Dr. Vamos-Toth Bator. Dr. Vamos-Toth Bator, calls this ancient civilization ---root culture-- Tamana. The term Tamana can be interpreted in the Manding and Dravidian language as "Strongplace","Stronghold" or "Original Settlement". The term Tamana is one of over 1,000,000 place names Dr. Vamos-Toth has found which link Africa, Asia, and Europe.

The term Tamana, was a popular place name for the Proto-Saharans, as they expanded out of the nuclear Proto-Saharan region, to signify a colonial city or trade center established among hostile alien tribes.

The Proto-Saharans also had their own writing system. This writing system was used by the Dravidians in the Indus Valley, the Manding in the Western Sahara, and the Egyptians.

The ancient Proto-Saharan script was a logo syllabic system. The words used to write this script were monosyllabic.

This writing was engraved on rocks, a stylus was used to engrave wet clay. This view is supported by the fact that the term for writing in Dravidian and Egyptian has supported by the fact that the term for writing in /l/, /r/ or /d/. For a U attached to initial consonants usually /l/, /r/ or /d/. For example, writing in Sumerian was Ru and Shu, Elamite: Talu, Dravidian: Carru and Egyptian: Mdu. These terms agree with the Manding terms for excavate or hollow out: du, do, kulu, tura, etc. This shows that the Proto-Saharan term for writing denoted the creation of impressions on wet clay or hard rock. The Sumerians term for carving was du.

A comparative study of the Proto-Saharan languages (PS), gives us a very clear indication of their cultural traits, at the time of separation. Suzanne Romaine, makes a good case for the separability of the linguistic area of research and that of socio-cultural research and the synchronic with the diachronic historical areas. This use of linguistic data to highlight the cultural history of related groups of speakers, was also supported by Labov , who suggested that people having similar scoio-cultural traits, would also be linguistically similar. As will soon be illustrated in this book, this theory is supported by the analogy between the Dravidian, Manding and Sumerian languages.

It is interesting to note that although the Dravidians, Manding and Sumerians live in varying topography and climate, and in self supporting semi-isolated regions they used the same terms to denote the earliest elements of civilization. Terms which show little phonological divergence. Moreover, these terms are mutually intelligible. This shows that the speakers of these languages came from a common ancestral language: Bafsudraalam.

The early contact between the Dravidians, Manding and Sumerians in the Proto-Sahara led to great resemblances in the area of the cultural lexicon. This is particularly evident in the affinity between culture terms referring to the Proto- civilization of the speakers of these languages. The sedentary lifestyle of the Proto-Saharans emphasize the role of culture as a determinant of linguistic structure and vocabulary.

An examination of the Proto-Saharan languages illustrates that the speakers of these languages lived in cities PS *uru, and had chiefs PS *sar. In addition to living in cities the Proto-Saharans had built extensive roads called PS *sila.

The PS term for people or humanity was PS *oku. The mother of the family was called PS *amma or *ma. and the father was called PS *pa. The children both boys and girls were usually referred to as PS *de/di/du. They lived in houses called PS *-u/*lu.

The Proto-Saharans used the suffix PS *-ta to indicate a place of habitation. Cultivation was called PS *ga(n); cultivatable barren land near water was referred to as PS *de/i(n).

The Proto-Saharans were great sailors. They used celestial navigation to make long voyages. The Proto-Saharans also used boats called PS *kalam.

Hunting was an important aspect of Proto-Saharan life. As a result the bow and arrow was a popular weapon, e.g., arrow PS *kaka.

Many of the long distance voyages made by the Proto-Saharans were made in search of precious metals. The Proto-Dravidians dominated trade in lapis lazuli for hundreds of years. As a result they were familiar with mining. They therefore share the term for digging: Dravidian tulai, Manding du, tyolo, and Sumerian dul, tul,: PS*tul.

These people probably knew about blacksmithy e.g., Tamil: irumbu,Telugu : inamu, Manding: numu, umu "forge". These Proto-Saharans were familiar with many metals including copper: Dravidian uruttiran, Sumerian urdu, and Manding: kura, kuta: PS *urut; gold: Dravidian: kaani, Kaanam, Sumerian: Gush-kin, and Manding: saani, PS *aani; and Steel, Dravidian: alavu, urukku, Elamite: ufat and Manding tuufa PS *ufa.

Above we have discussed many of the cultural first which the Proto-Saharans created in ancient Africa. The linguistic evidence clearly indicates that the Dravidians, Elamites, Black Africans and Sumerians formerly lived in the Highland regions of the Sahara until after the Sahara began to dry up. As the highland regions of the Sahara became a desert the Proto-Saharans spread from middle Africa to America, Europe, Asia and throughout Africa.

The Tamana Civilization

by Clyde Winters



Was there once a Universal World Culture? A researcher in Hawaii, Dr. Vomos-Toth Bator thinks there was such a culture. And he has presented over 1,000,000 place names from around the world to prove his point.

At Borota-Kukula in Hungary, Borota near Lake Chad in Africa, Kukura, Bolivia and Kukula, New Guinea we find Cone-Houses of similar shapes. In addition we find that 6000 year old pottery signs from sites such as Tordos in the Carpathian Basin of Europe, ancient Egypt and Banpo in China all show amazing corre- spondence.

All of these similarities in place-names and cultural expressions ,separated by thousands of miles suggest that at sometime in our distant past mankind shared a universal culture, just as they spoke a similar proto- language which linguists call Nostratic. A researcher in Hawaii, Dr. Vamos-Toth believes he has found this Universal culture which spanned the entire world untold millennia before our present era. Dr. Vamos-Toth calls this pre-Diluvial culture: Tamana, the name these ancient civilizers used to denote their colonial cities. The people practicing this culture are called the Proto-Saharans.

Dr. Vomos-Toth over a decade ago observed that certain place-names common to his ancestral home in the Carpathian Basin of his beloved Hungary, were also found in countries outside of Europe. After years of research he discovered that 5800 places names are found in the Carpathian Basin and 149 countries around the world. Over 3500 of these place names can be seen outside of Eurasia, in Africa, the Americas and Oceania. Most of these towns and rivers that share Tamana place names are found in areas recently discovered or geographically not known even 100-150 years ago.

Topographical names rarely change, eventhough new peoples may settle in an area. For example my home town of Chicago, still bears a name originally given the area by its form Indian inhabitants.

The term Tamana is a place name found in 24 countries around the world. Recently, Dr. Vomos-Toth discovered the occurrence of this place name as a river in Northern Ontario: Tamuna (< Tamana) . This place-name situated in a secluded swampy area near the Hudson Bay, is an infusive-superfusive survival of the Tamana or Proto-Saharan culture.

The term Tamana in the Manding language of Africa, the Magyar language of Hungary and the Dravidian languages spoken in India share the same meaning: "Strong Place, Stronghold' or 'Original Settlement. Since the cities established by the Tamana people were cities or trading centers situated among hostile tribes led to these settlements being called: Tamana or 'stronghold'.

The Tamana people may have come from Saharan Africa, because they appear to have expanded around the world after the Deluge which some researchers like Zecharia Sitchin , who in his book When Time Began, believes that the great flood occurred 13,000 years ago. He believes that 13,000 years ago climatic changes occurred after the Antarctica ice sheet melted and sent a giant tidal wave destroying low-land areas throughout the world.

There is considerable mention of a great deluge in the legends and ancient lore of almost all the peoples on the planet. In the Hebrew Bible, we find the biblical account of Noah, who was told by god to build an ark to carry the remnants of mankind and the animals of the earth.

In the Mesopotamian cuneiform writing there is also mention of the great deluge. In the Mesopotamia account of the deluge the Sumerian god Enki, told Atra Hasis to build a boat to same mankind during a great flood that lasted days. And in India we find mention of the god Manu, who is suppose to have saved mankind after a similar great flood.

All of these stories have a common theme. That theme is the presence in ancient times of pluvial climate which led to mankind learning more about the navigation of the seas, and boat building.

It would appear that because of the world wide flooding of low land areas, the only safe place to live at this time may have been the highland areas of Saharan Africa. It is this theory which has led to the Tamana culture bearers being called ;Proto-Saharans.

It would appear the Tamana people belonged to an ancient confederation called Maa. Members of the Maa or Fish Confederation include the Magyar, Egyptians, Elamites, Manding, Afro-Asiatic speakers and the Dravidians.

It would appear that the name Maa, was either their great ancestor Noah, Atra Hasis and etc. , or the god worshipped by these ancient navigators. In honor of this great ancestor the descendants of the Tamana people use the term ma, to denote 'greatness or highness'. For example the term for 'great' is, Magyar:Maga- s; Manding Maga; and Dravidian Ma.

The Tamana people also claim descent from the great Maa, founder of the Fish Confederation. For illus tration, the Manding or Mandikan people call themselves Ma-nde (the children of Ma); the Sumerians called themselves Mah-Gar-ri (exalted children); while the Magyar refer to themselves as Muh-ger-ri ( Mogeri) or Ma-ka-r (exalted children).

The research of Dr. Vamos-Toth indicate that the Tamana had their own writing as proven by the similar ity of the pottery writing found on ancient pottery from Africa and Eurasia. In addition they possessed an outstanding boat technology and knowledge of nautical astronomy. These Proto-Saharans offered prayers to Ka 'the ancient spirit/God' : Magyar Kan; Mandikan Kani; and Dravidian Ka-n.

Dr. Vamos Toth Bator, after years of research has found the missing link in ancient history, that is nu merous toponyms around the world that point to a common origin around the world.Although many scholars would dispute this claim right away, without reviewing the evidence , the results of Dr. Vamos Toth's research when viewed with an open mind and the hundreds of toponyms that he has discovered which show a link between place-names Africa Eurasia and the Americas, that deserves to be examined by other academics.

A key element of Vamos Toth research has been the discovery of regularity of prefixed or suffixed place- name elements. The use of this method is not new it was also used by a Mawer, in 1924 in his book The Chief Elements Used in English Place-Names.

The toponymic data collected by Vamos Toth compliments the work of N.Lahovary, who in DRAVIDIAN ORIGINS AND THE WEST made factual claims about the common origin of pre-Indo-European cultures in Europe and Asia. The discovery of the -ari element in many toponymic examples by Vamos Toth is signifi cant because ari, agrees with ur, the Dravidian suffix for 'city, village or town'. In Sumerian ur/ uru, has a similar meaning.This corresponds to terms in the Manding languages where we have furu 'property of a clan'. This compliments the findings of Lahovary of the widespread use of ar, among the hydronomic names from Europe to India.

Dr. Vamos Toth gives many Tamana place-names with the ma- element,this agrees with the Manding word ma: 'area' or 'surface', this corresponds to the Dravidian word man : 'earth', 'soil' and 'land'.

Another common place-name element found by Dr. Vamos Toth is ka and ki. The ka element seems to represent an inhabited area. For example, in the Dravidian languages ka, means fortification, in Manding languages -ka , is a locative suffix joined to place-names while in Swahili ka, means 'to live (in), dwell. In Sumerian -ki, is the past position determinative placed after the name of places and countries.

The final Tamana place-name element covered by Bator,are: gu,nu, Bum and Buna. These terms from the study of the languages spoken by the Tamana culture bearers were used to refer to home or domicile. For example, the bo or bu element is often found in the terms for house, e.g., Kannada gibu 'house' and Manding bo 'house'. The nu element can be found in many languages as n+vowel, e.g., Dravidian nakar 'house', Manding nu 'habitation of a family or clan'.

The Dravidian term mal, or mala was a common root in the toponyms of the Near East, Europe, India and Mexico. In the Dravidian languages mala means mountain, or hill or large rough rocks. In the Magyar language, a member of the Ural-Altaic group mal means 'pile, stack,heap and hill'.

The Dravidian , Manding and Ural Altaic languages can explain the place names 'sand' and 'kara'. The kara term is most interesting. This name is very popular especially in Inner Asia. This term occurs as a name for rivers or towns situated along rivers, streams or lakes. This suggest that kara, is a water sign.

This view is supported by the Manding and Dravidian languages. In Dravidian 'car' means "unite and shelter", while kar means "saltiest or brackish'. In Manding kara means "to assemble, and be dirty". This suggests that the kara toponym was used to name towns, because it signified both a place of assembly (shelter), and a place where the water would be brackish or dirty. In the Dravidian languages kari, meant river. The term kara is often associated dirt or black e.g.,Turkish kara 'black', Magyar korom 'soot,dirty' and Korean kurim 'soot'.

The sand, place name appears to denote dry uncultivated land near a river at high altitude areas of the globe. Sand, may agree with Manding sade 'uncultivated land in the region where rain is formed (the moun tains)'.This interpretation is based on the reading of sa and nde. In Manding sa, means 'serpent , rain, sky region where rain is formed' and nde 'uncultivated land near water'. It is interesting to note that -sa, -csa in Magyar means 'pond,dirty lake'.

Since the tops of mountains are usually covered by (rain) clouds ,it meant when people living in the valleys moved their habitation sites up into the mountainous areas near rivers they would call these sites sa- nde 'the sky region's land near water'. This view is supported by the fact that in Chinese ,shan means 'moun tain range', while shandi meant 'hilly land', this totally agrees with our interpretation of the term sa-nde. In the Chinese language shang would agree with sand, because shang means 'upper'. In Magyar, the word sand (shand) means 'slant of the mountains'.

Another Tamana place name is assa. The term assa, is related to water. In many ancient languages ba and a, were used to denote water.Many Manding and Dravidian words formed with an initial s(c)- today,in ancient times were formed by an initial t-. In Dravidian , Magyar and Manding ta-, indicates places. In Mandi- ng -sa , in ancient times was used to denote a place of habitation. Thus assa, could be interpreted as 'water place or locality of water'. The addition of the -s, after a-, in the term assa, is nothing more than a verbal termination. Thus if sand-assa, is near a body of water it can be interpreted as 'mountainous region of land near water', or 'much water this locality'.

Another Tamana place name was assa-ker. The term assa-ker means 'brackish water this locality' or ' much water this locality of the brackish type'.

The evidence is clear, many place names in Eurasia, Africa and the Americas are substrates that are derived from the languages spoken by the Tamana people which include Sumerian, Magyar, Mandikan and the Dravidian group.. The toponyms discovered by Dr. Vamos-Toth also highlight the wide dispersal of the Tamana people in ancient times and the origination of the substantial Nostratic vocabulary that link widely dispersed languages from Africa, to Eurasia and the Americas. The research of Dr. Vomos-Toth is witness to the High-Level Universal culture of his Tamana culture-bearers.

Africa's First Civilization: The Maa Confederation

Tuesday, April 3, 2012

South Carolina Genealogy Database

South Carolina – African Americans – 1525 to 1865

South Carolina SC African American History, Resources SC Slavery, Civil War

Skip to: Slaves | Freedmen | Soldiers, Sailors | Related Resources


  • Buying and selling human beings - examines slave trade from the shores of Africa to the markets of Charleston, including capture, the Middle Passage, auctions and cost, and the separation of families

  • Everyday life - labor and living conditions ... describes work loads, accountability systems, rice cultivation, slave quarters, clothing, and diet

  • Everyday death - talks about the constant presence of disease and death in South Carolina's slave community ... also gives info about African-American cemeteries and burial traditions

  • In their own words - first-person narratives and histories of South Carolina slaves and ex-slaves

  • Black revolts
    Stono Rebellion - 1739 - the largest slave uprising in America prior to the Revolution - scroll down for additional resources
    Denmark Vessey's Conspiracy - 1822 - recounts details surrounding Vessey's plot to overtake Charleston ... includes terms of Gullah Jack's sentence and record of Monday Gell's confessions

  • South Carolina's slave population - includes breakdowns by year and explains the relationship between SC's high slave population and the lowcountry's unique suitablity to rice culture ... also looks at our slave population compared to other Southern states

  • Slavery at South Carolina College, 1801-1865 - documenting the role slaves played in the early years of the college that became the University of South Carolina

  • White opinion - collection of online letters, diaries, and books written by nineteenth-century white South Carolinians documenting their attitudes toward slavery


  • What was a freedman? - meanings of the word "freedmen" before and after the Civil War

  • Free Persons of Color in Charleston, SC, before the Civil War - everything from where they worked to where they lived ... also explains how they obtained their freedom, the competition they faced from white laborers, and the increasing limits imposed on them by South Carolina's fearful white government

  • Mitchelville: Experiment in Freedom - begun on Hilton Head Island in 1862 as part of the Port Royal Experiment ... Mitchelville has been called "the place where freedom began" for South Carolina's Sea Island slaves

  • A freedman testifies - 1863 - Harry McMillan speaks about black people's lives in bondage and their aspirations in freedom - emphasizes their desire for land

  • The Freed Men of South Carolina - 1862 - conditions of Sea Island freedmen according to Port Royal Relief Committee's J. Miller M'Kim

  • Brown Fellowship Society - Charleston social club - established 1790 - renamed Century Fellowship Society in 1890 or 1892 - scroll to bottom
    Additional info - explains the Society's role in securing a burial site (photograph) for its members as well as the subsequent desecration of this site (called Macphelah) by the Catholic Diocese ... also mentions the Society for Free Blacks of Dark Complexion (later called the Brotherly Society), a similar organization which established the Ephrath cemetery for people of pure African descent

  • Freedmen's Bureau Records - reports that include information on conditions, laws, land grants, and more

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Lowcountry Africana

Lowcountry Africana has built many Footnote Pages from the new, FREE Footnote collection SC Estate Inventories and Bills of Sale, 1732-1872. Read about South Carolina plantations and learn the names of enslaved ancestors on the plantations. Anyone may contribute pictures, more...

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Lowcountry Africana: South Carolina Slave Records on Fold3

South Carolina

Lowcountry Africana, sponsored by the Magnolia Plantation Foundation of Charleston, SC has built many Footnote Pages from the new, FREE Footnote collection SC Estate Inventories and Bills of Sale, 1732-1872.

Visit this page often to see new pages we're building each week!

Read about South Carolina plantations and learn the names of enslaved ancestors on the plantations.