The following is from A Chronology of Taino Cultural and Biological Survival. This page consists of a "work in progress" undertaken by CAC editor Jorge Baracutei Estevez.
According to Herbert W. Krieger, Jeffreys describes 100 natives living in Haiti in 1730. In “Aborigines of the Island of Hispaniola” page 478, 1930
Alexandre Oliver Exquemelian reported in the 1770’s that the Buccaneers and their “Indian tracker” companions were all over the Island of Hispaniola. Alexandre Oliver Exquemelian “The buccaneers of America: A true account of The most remarkable assaults committed by the English and the French Buccaneers against the Spaniards in America (Santo Domingo: Editorial Taller, 1992).
Jose Alvarez de Peralta writes that, at the time of the treaty between Spain and France on June 3, 1777 at Aranjuez, the Dominican population was, not counting the Haitian side, 400,000. The break down was as follows: blancos (white).....................................................................100,000 Mestizos de Raza India y Blanca........................................100, 000 Mulatos.....................................................................................70,000 Mestizos de Raza India y Negro............................................60,000 Negros.......................................................................................70, 000
Emilio Rodriguez Demorizi In, Relaciones geográficas de Santo Domingo Vol 1, P.162.
Medric Louis Elie Moreau de Saint Mery, reported that in 1783 he observed that there were certain “Creoles who have hair like that of Indians and “pretend” to be descendants of the primitive natives on his visit to the Eastern, Spanish side of the Island. In “Descripcion de la parte Espanola de Santo Domingo, trans”. C Armando Rodriguez (Santo Domingo: Editora Montalvo, 1944) 95 and 50 respectively
Modesta- Slave girl from the Dominican Republic sold in 1783Buyer's Name: MoralesSeller's Name: LabieYear Document was created: 1783Origin: Santo DomingoGender: femaleRacial Designation: grif-usually means mixed black and IndianDocument Location: Orleans (including hapitoulas).[Jefferson 1825] http://www.ibiblio.org/laslave/individ.php?sid=14523by by Dr. Gwendolyn Midlo Hall
In the 1787 census under governor Toribio Montes in Puerto Rico, over 2300 “pure” Indians are listed living in the Central Cordillera, yet in the census of 1800, there are no categories for Indians or mixed blood Indians. What do appear in place of Indians are Freemen of color or “pardo”. As it appears in the 1787 census of Puerto Rico. According to historian Salvador Brau.
Felipe- Slave boy from Jamaica sold in 1793Buyer's Name: Laburthe y BarriereSeller's Name: LeblancYear Document was created: 1793Origin: JamaicaGender: maleRacial Designation: grif-usually means mixed black and IndianDocument Location: Orleans (including Chapitoulas).[Jefferson 1825] http://www.ibiblio.org/laslave/individ.php?sid=23247 Dr. Gwendolyn Midlo Hall
Adele- Slave girl from Haiti sold in 1811Buyer's Name: Morel/Seller's Name: PradineYear Document was created: 1811Origin: St Domingue/Gender: femaleRacial Designation: grif-usually means mixed black and IndianDocument Location: Orleans (including Chapitoulas).[Jefferson 1825] http://www.ibiblio.org/laslave/fields.php by Dr. Gwendolyn Midlo Hall
Benoit- Slave boy from Haiti sold in 1811Buyer's Name: ReynaudSeller's Name: Bidet RenoulleauYear Document was created: 1811Origin: St DomingueGender: maleRacial Designation: grif-usually means mixed black and IndianDocument Location: Orleans (including Chapitoulas).[Jefferson 1825] http://www.ibiblio.org/laslave/individ.php?sid=52448 by by Dr. Gwendolyn Midlo Hall
Adelle-Slave girl from Haiti sold in 1816Buyer's Name: RondeauSeller's Name: MontasYear Document was created: 1816Origin: St DomingueGender: femaleRacial Designation: grif-usually means mixed black and IndianDocument Location: Orleans (including Chapitoulas).[Jefferson 1825] http://www.ibiblio.org/laslave/individ.php?sid=68923 by Dr. Gwendolyn Midlo Hall
Camire- Slave boy from Cuba sold in 1816Buyer's Name: MalusSeller's Name: LapeyereYear Document was created: 1816Origin: CubaGender: maleRacial Designation: grif-usually means mixed black and IndianDocument Location: Orleans (including Chapitoulas).[Jefferson 1825] http://www.ibiblio.org/laslave/individ.php?sid=67018 by Dr. Gwendolyn Midlo Hall
Dorotee-Slave girl from Jamaica sold in 1816Buyer's Name: LeBlancSeller's Name: DispanYear Document was created: 1816Origin: JamaicaGender: femaleRacial Designation: grif-usually means mixed black and IndianDocument Location: Pointe Coupee/ http://www.ibiblio.org/laslave/individ.php?sid=68559 by Dr. Gwendolyn Midlo Hall
Celestine- Slave girl from Cuba sold in 1817Estate's (Deceased Master) Name: SeguinBuyer's Name: BorelYear Document was created: 1817Origin: CubaGender: femaleRacial Designation: grif-usually means mixed black and IndianDocument Location: Orleans (including Chapitoulas).[Jefferson 1825] http://www.ibiblio.org/laslave/individ.php?sid=72659 by Dr. Gwendolyn Midlo Hall
So much so that the national complexion of skin and general physiognomic traits may well be described as being alight brown, approaching the copper color of the North American aborigines, straight black hair in the case of the females, glossy and in luxurious profusion and a combination of features resulting from about an equal blending of the African, Caucasian and -Indian physiognomies. The very visible traits of the latter would seem to indicate, although we are not aware of the existence of any other evidence of it, that the aboriginal race instead of having been entirely exterminated, had been particularly amalgamated. In “The Dominican Republic in the Island of St. Domigue” by S. A. Kendall, page 243, 1849
The “pure” race wholly died in (Hispaniola) at the latter end of the “last” century; but their characteristic features and luxuriant hair, are still to be traced among their descendants, from intercourse with Europeans, Africans and colored people. These are still called Indios. In Harper's statistical gazetteer of the world / by J. Calvin Smith ; Illustrated by seven maps. Publication date: 1855.Collection: Making of America BooksMay the devil take me, if I happen see him around here. These damned Indians can never be seen; as soon as they are here they disappear, and when we think they have been defeated, they re-appear shooting even more. And they are not bad shots either. They have spent their entire lives hunting, so wherever they aim, one has no choice but to make the sign of the cross. By an anonymous Spanish soldier to his family in 1864 during the War for Dominican Restoration which began August 16, 1863 as it appears in http://www.27febrero.com/larestauracion.htm
Few “genuine” representatives of the indigenous race can be found in the Dominican Republic. In “The American Encyclopædia: Publication date: 1873-76.Collection: Making of America BooksThe population of the Dominican Republic is one tenth white, Spaniards of un-mixed descent, and the rest a mixture of Spanish, Indian and Negro with a small number of pure Negroes. In Johnson's new universal Encyclopedia: a scientific and popular treasury of useful knowledge ... Editors-in-chief. Frederick A.P. Barnard ... [and] Arnold Guyot ... With numerous contributions from writers of distinguished eminence in every department of letters and science in the United States and in Europe...Publication date: 1875-1878.
Although at their entrance the Spaniards found some 2,000,00 Natives, Negro slaves had to be introduced as early as 1522; by 1711 there were only 21,000 natives. In “The Globe encyclopaedia of universal information”. Edited by John M. Ross. Publication date: 1876-79. Collection: Making of America Books.
In the mid 1800’s a Spanish ship rescued 200 Yucatan Indians who had been stranded by the French on Tortuga Island. These Indians were taken to live at the town of Boya, perhaps, because there was an Indian contingent already there? In “La Encyopedia de la Cultura Dominicana”, book B, page 282.
In 1882 a 91-year-old woman by the name of Josefa Gonzalez, who along with other neighbors affirmed that the Cacique Enriquillo and his wife Mencia are buried in a tomb in the center of the church in the town of Boya. General Don Pedro Santana who after being elected President of the Dominican Republic, assigned a pension to another Indian woman who claimed to be a descendant of one of the other chiefs under Enriquillo, and also lived in Boya. Manuel De Jesus Galvan, in Enriquillo page 480, 1882.
In Haiti, Santo Domingo and in New Mexican Pueblos old Indian rites are wonderfully mixed with Christian ceremonials. Hence we have on one and the same day mass and tablet dances-church services followed by dances in which old time mythological personages appear. James Walter Fewkes, In “On Zemes from Santo Domingo” Pepper collection: foot note, page 1, 1891
There are still half breed Indians living in the town of Boya, Dominican Republic, notes Frederick Albion Ober, in “Aborigines of the West Indies” 1895, page 289. Proc. Amer. Antiq. Soc. n.s. vol. 9 pp. Worcester, Mass.
War Diaries of Jose Marti: Part 1- From MonteCristi, Dominican Republic to Cap-Haitian, February 14, 1895, page 354
…La Esperanza, made famous by Columbus’s route, is a hamlet of palms and yaguas on a wholesome stretch of level ground encircled by mountains. La Providencia (Providence) was the name of the first general store back in Guayubin, the one that belonged to a Puerto Rican husband, who had some yellowing antique, medical books and a fresh young Indian girl with marble profile, an uneasy smile, and flaming eyes, who approached our stirrups to hand cigars up to us. And in La Esperanza we dismounted in front of La Delicia. From within, General Candelario Lozano, his hair too long and his pants too short, comes to open the gate- “la pueita” is how he says puerta- for our mounts. He isn’t wearing socks and his shoes are made of leather, He hangs up his hammock…War Diaries, Cuba, April 23, 1895 Page 389….”But why do these Cubans fight against Cubans? I’ve seen that it isn’t a matter of opinion or some impossible affection for Spain.” “They fight, the pigs, they fight like that for the peso they’re paid, one peso a day, less the lodging that’s deducted. They’re the bad seed of the little villages, or men who have a crime to pay for, or tramps who don’t want to work, and a handful of Indians from Baitiquiri and Cajueri…Page 390-Since el Palenque they’ve been following our tracks closely. Garridos Indians could fall on us here. Jose Marti, Selected Writings, edited and translated by Esther Allen, 2002, Penguin Classics
“The one of most interest is the indio, or that of the descendants of Inhabitants found on the island at its discovery and settlement. They form a great mass of the country laborers over the island, especially in the centre and northeastern section. They have much of the serious appearance of the North American Indian, with his high cheek bones, but their color is less red and more swarthy.” M.W. Harrington’s , Porto Rico and the Porto Ricans, Catholic world, volume 70, Issue 416, page 174.